Kotor Montenegro

Slave Žižek – The Mountain Wreath Epic Montenegrin Poem

Montenegro is decidedly different from Croatia. I spent the first day in a cloud trying to accomplish basics – getting bearings, buying a local SIM, finding food, and determining a loose itinerary for the week. After days of rain, the weather was warm and sunny!

Kotor Wall at Dusk – On the Luce Travel Blog

Some tours available in summer aren’t running now, but there’s still plenty to see and learn. I’m checking into boat tours of nearby islands in the Bay of Kotor. Since it’s winter group tours are hard to find and private tours expensive.

St. George Church Kotor – Kathmandu & Beyond

Walking Kotor’s Walls to St. John’s Fortress

My first adventure was walking Kotor’s walls and the “seemingly never-ending switchbacks along the ancient ramparts” of St. John Mountain to St. John’s Fortress. The stone steps and loose rocks were challenging but not difficult. The path leads to interesting destinations, depending on how far you go and which turns you take at forks in the path. You can end up at Church of Our Lady of Remedy, Sveti Ivan Fortress, or the partially hidden Church of St. George.

Hiking the Wall

Petar II Petrović Njegoš – Montenegrin Ruler, Governor, Poet, and Philosopher

Kotor Old Town – New Location, Different Apartment

Moving between countries causes some disorientation – at least for me. Just when you’re getting comfortable in a location, it’s time to move on and everything changes. Moves keep you on your toes. My Kotor apartment is in Old Town. At first the medieval city with its narrow cobbled streets, stone archways, and dead ends seemed like an impossible maze – especially at night. My landlord gave a good orientation which didn’t make sense at the time but after a day of exploring does.

View from St. John Fortress


“Kotor’s history is parallel to the rich culture of the town ruled by many conquerors –  Illyrians, Venetians, Austrians, French…”


Kotor Bridge Old Town – 360monte.me

Every morning at 7:30 am Old Town church bells begin tolling. If you’re staying here and not already awake, it’s your unavoidable alarm clock! Throughout the day the bells ring at predetermined times – noon, 5 pm, 8 pm. Sunday is a day of wild church bells.

Kotor Montenegro – featurepics.com

Cars are not allowed in Old City. You can hear reverberating conversations from cafés, carts rolling along the cobbled pavement, and people passing in the narrow stone streets below. The last medieval city time I stayed in was Split Croatia. It’s a fun, interesting experience and mini taste of life in a medieval city.

Culture, Poetry, Art

Kotor’s history includes invasions by many would-be conquerors, yet Montenegro maintains a unique culture and national pride. Balkan neighbors from Serbia, Bosnia, and Croatia often label relaxed Montenegrins as lazy. Not sure that’s fair. They have a “deep love and respect for family” and clearly are proud of their heritage and country. I still struggle to differentiate between Serbs, Croats, and Bosnians.

Sveti Ivan Fortress – Meanderbug

Poetry is an important part of Montenegro’s history. Gorski Vijenac (The Mountain Wreath) is a “vast epic poem focusing on the coming together (or lack thereof) of Montenegro’s many tribes”. Petar II Petrović Njegoš, Montenegrin ruler, governor, poet, and philosopher wrote the poem. It’s not an easy read but a must if you really want to understand Montenegro.

Dado Đurić Painter, Engraver, Draftsman, Illustrator, Sculptor – OKF Cetinje

Milo Milunović Painter Impressionism and Cubism – maletic.org


Montenegro’s most formidable foes were the Venetians and Ottomans. Both cultures left a strong impact on the country.


Saint Tryphon Cathedral Kotor

Dado Đurić Montenegrin Artist

Njegoš brought “modernization” to Montenegro in the 19th century. Between 1970 and 1974 the Montenegrin people built the highest mausoleum in the world to honor him. It’s on the second highest peak of Lovcen Mountain.

Art is important to Montenegrins. Milo Milunović and Dado Đurić are two notable contemporary artists. If possible, I’ll visit local galleries and see their work. Most major galleries are in Cetinje, Herceg-Novi, Podgorica, Bar, and Budva.

Church of Our Lady of Remedy Kotor – Photorator

Independence, Politics, Economy

Like Croatians, Montenegrins have a “relentless desire for independence”. Over centuries they’ve fought fierce battles against large invading armies.

Milo Milunović – Pinterest

Montenegro has been independent since 2006. The President Milo Đukanović is also President of the Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro. He’s known as a “Balkan political strongman” and has been in power since 1997. I’ve heard that Đukanović is unpopular with younger Montenegrins.

President of Montenegro Milo Đukanović – bne IntelliNews

My landlord expressed concern that the current situation in Kosovo might have a negative impact on Montenegro. I don’t know much about it and am educating myself.

Dado Đurić Traces of Ancient Montenegro – mne.today

There’s considerable poverty in Montenegro. The average monthly salary is between 300 – 600 Euros. Montenegro’s economy is said to be “in transition”. Currently it’s service based and still recovering from the impact of the Yugoslav Wars. Montenegro experienced a real estate boom in 2006 and 2007 when wealthy “Russians, Brits, and others bought property on the Montenegrin coast”.

Steps to Sveti Ivan Fortress – Meanderbug

More later…


Tours from Dubrovnik are difficult to find in winter, so I was happy to book a tour to Montenegro with GetYourGuide, a Berlin-based company operating throughout Europe. It was a full day led by local Amico Tours. I’m considering Montenegro or Sarajevo as my next stop and day trips will help me decide.

Mausoleum of Njegos Lovcen Mountain Montenegro

We began at 7 am and returned to Dubrovnik 11 hours later. Our group of five included a Chinese mother and daughter from Shanghai on a long European trip, a young couple from Santiago Chile, and me. Our Bosnian guide and driver shared fascinating Montenegrin geography, culture, history, and folktales with us. As usual the vast amount of information was a bit overwhelming – at least for me.

View from Petar Petrovic Njegos Mausoleum – Old Town Kotor Hostel

Our Lady of the Rocks and Benedictine Monastery Islands Perast – dubrovnik-tours.hr

Winter Weather Croatia and Montenegro

I’m learning about weather in the Balkans and had rescheduled once because of heavy rain. Winter rain patterns come fast and furious and can clear quickly, but not always. When rain is in the forecast it doesn’t necessarily mean all day, and for a winter day trip, rain or shine is usually OK. We had heavy morning rain and a few rays of sunshine in the afternoon followed by light rain. It wasn’t a great day for photography. Even with a raincoat and umbrella, I got a little wet.

Kotor Clocktower

Konavle Valley and Bay of Kotor

Our southeast route to Montenegro passed small villages like Mlini and Cavtat, birthplace of Croatian painter Vlaho Bukovac, and continued through the Konavle Valley to the Bay of Kotor. The fertile valley is sometimes called the Gulf of Croatia. It’s known for granaries, canals, and abundant “waterfalls and watermills” generated from the Ljuta, Kopačica, and Konavočica Rivers.

Croatian Painter Vlaho Bukovac

Budva Old Town – Chasing the Donkey

On the way to Kotor we passed several Montenegrin villages – Herceg Novi, BijelaVerige, DobrotaPerast, and Risan. Over the years, Illyrians, Romans, Slavs, Celts, Greeks, Venetians, Spaniards, French, Ottomans, pirates, and others invaded Montenegro. The small country finally gained independence in 2006.

Church of St. Luke Kotor – Travel East

Although Montenegro just started the process of joining the EU, the Euro is its local currency. Today there’s a strong Russian influence, and in recent years wealthy Russian investors have changed Montenegro.

Kotor St. Nikola Church


A UNESCO World heritage site, Perast is a quiet village. We stopped for coffee and even with rain and poor visibility marveled at the bay and its two tiny islands. One is home to Our Lady of the Rocks (Gospa od Škrpjela) Church and the other Saint George Benedictine Monastery. St. George Island is closed to tourists but during the summer, you can take a boat to visit Our Lady of the Rocks Church.

Perast Marina

Our Lady of the Rocks is on a man-made island. “The island’s folklore began on July 22, 1452 when two sailors returning from a difficult voyage discovered an icon of the Madonna and Child resting on a rock in a shallow part of the Bay. They considered their find a miracle and vowed to build a church on the spot. Over time the sailors dropped stones around the spot where the icon was found, slowly creating an islet and then building a small chapel.”

Sokol Tower Konavle Valley – Adventure Dalmatia

Over the years dropping stones in the water around the church became a tradition for sailors. The ritual had a dual purpose – strengthening the tiny island’s foundation and “asking the Virgin Mother to bring them safely home”. Today the tradition is part of “one of Europe’s oldest sailing regattas, the Fašinada“.

Dobrota Village Montenegro – mylittleadventure


“During the Fašinada regatta, at sunset on July 22 countless local boats decorated with garlands sail out into the Bay to drop a stone around the island and Our Lady of the Rocks Church.”


Kotor City Walls to St. John Fort – montenegro-for.me

The church contains 68 paintings by Tripo Kokolja, a 17th-century baroque artist from Perast. There are also paintings by Italian masters, and an icon (circa 1452) of Our Lady of the Rocks by Venetian painter Lovro Dobričević.

Tripo Kokolja Sibile from the Church of Our Lady of Škrpjela

Map of Balkan Countries

“The church has a collection of silver votive tablets and a tapestry embroidered by Jacinta Kunić-Mijović, the wife of a Montenegrin seaman. It took her 25 years to finish the tapestry she made while waiting for her husband to return from long journeys at sea. She used golden and silver fibers but what makes the tapestry famous is that she embroidered her own hair in it.” The folktale goes that the hair woven changed from dark to gray as she grew older.

Kotor Montenegro – croisieurope

Saint George is a natural island. It’s home to 12th century Saint George Benedictine Monastery and has an old graveyard for Perast and Kotor nobility.

St. Triphon’s Cathedral Kotor

Verige and Risan

Verige (chains in Croatian) is named for chains that were placed throughout its bay to damage or sink enemy ships. Inaccessible limestone cliffs helped protect Risan from pirates and other invaders. Konavle Cliffs are part of the Orjen mountain range in the Adriatic Dinarides. Risan has a famous Roman villa with mosaics dating from the 2nd and early 3rd century AD. Today it’s a popular beach town.

Island of St. George Perast – @poseidonsreach

Side View Church of St. Luke Kotor


“For about 12.5 miles, the steep inaccessible limestone Cliffs of Konavle sprawl along the coast from Cavtat to Molunat and fall vertically into the Adriatic Sea.”


Medieval Street Budvar Old Town


Kotor is one of the “prettiest towns in Montenegro”, known for its ancient fortified city walls, Venetian-inspired architecture, and maritime history. It’s located “deep down the Boka Kotorska Bay” and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Kotor Canal Kampana Tower

There are many interesting churches, palaces, and monasteries in Kotor, especially the Cathedral of Sveti Tripun “mentioned for the first time in IX century.” It’s a symbol of the city and the seat of the Catholic Bishopric of Kotor.

Kotor Old Town Clock Tower Montenegro

There are ten churches in Kotor and Orthodox Christians outnumber Catholics. Locals have “acknowledged the peaceful coexistence between the two religions”. Orthodox Christians attend or partake in Catholic celebrations and vice versa. Kotor’s Christmas season lasts into January since Orthodox Christians celebrate Christmas Day on or near January 7.

Kotor Palace Old Town

A hike to the top of the city walls leads to St. John Fortress and a phenomenal view of the Bay of Kotor! I was looking forward to the hike, but heavy rain and a notoriously slippery path made it too dangerous. The weather cleared a bit, and we got some stunning views and photos while continuing our journey into the hills.

Vlaho Bukovac Daydreams – largesizepaintings.blogspot.com


Lord Byron famously called Montenegro’s coastline the planet’s ‘most beautiful encounter between land and sea’.


House Old Town Kotor

The annual Lovcen International Hill-Climb Race takes place in the Kotor hills on dangerous curvy roads full of sharp turns. The race is named after Lovcen National Park in the Dinara Alps. During the 2018 race a driver survived a crash that sent his car somersaulting through the air into a boulder!

Budva Montenegro – adriaticdmc.hr

The Dinaric Alps are part of the Balkan Dinara Mountain Range and a popular adventure sport location for climbing, hiking, skiing, and sky diving. Most of the Adriatic islands belong to this system because in earlier geo history the “western parts of the mountain range were partly submerged by seawater “.

Ferry from Lepetane to Kamenari – Doo Pomorski Saobraćaj


Budva is a popular Mediterranean tourist town known for its beautiful beaches and vibrant nightlife. Budva has over 30 sand, pebble, and rock beaches. The sand in some areas is an extraordinary pink from the color of local rocks. Near Budva there are endless possibilities for adventurous recreational activities. Lovcen National Park, Lake Skadar National Park, Durmitor National Park, Mount Ostrog, Tara Canyon, and Biogradska Gora National Park are popular destinations.

Pink Sand Beach Sveti Stefan – depositphotos

Beautiful Painting Vlaho Bukovac

Konavle Cliffs – Agroturizam Konavle

Budva’s famous award-winning nightclub Top Hill is one of the largest and best nightclubs in Europe. Open-air performances are 600 meters (2,000 feet) above the sea with magnificent Adriatic views.

St. Stefan Island – adriaicdmc.hr

I walked Budva’s Old Town in the rain. Smaller than Dubrovnik and Kotor it’s described as a “Venetian maze of cobblestone streets, anchored by a 15th century citadel”. Except for a few shops, it was a winter ghost town.

Konavle Canal – Just Dubrovnik

You can’t help but notice that many palm trees in Budva, Kotor, and Dubrovnik look dreadful. Our guide said this is because palm moths and weevils are killing them and no one has discovered a remedy. It’s really sad.

National Restaurant Konavoski Dvori Ljuta River Konavle

There are many stray cats in Budva and Dubrovnik. Our guide explained that the cats were brought to Montenegro and Dubrovnik during the great bubonic plague to kill rats carrying the disease. Thousands died during the epidemic. To address the situation, Dubrovnik “issued an interesting decree where anyone who lived abroad had to spend 40 days in quarantine at one of the nearby islands before entering the city”.

St. John Fortress Kotor – Afar

Sveti Stefan, Petar Petrovic Njegos Mausoleum, Sokol Tower

Three interesting places we didn’t visit on our tour are Sveti Stefan Island near Budva,  the Petar Petrovic Njegos Mausoleum, Montenegro’s greatest writer, and Sokol Tower, a medieval remain near Dubrovnik. I’d like to visit Petar Petrovic Njegos Mausoleum, and Sokol Tower, but they’re both in isolated locations and would require hiring a guide for a private tour – very expensive in winter.

Verige – Montenegro Travel

Sveti Stefan

Sveti Stefan is one of the “most famous and prestigious places in Montenegro”. It’s a tiny island near Budva. Once a fishing village, it’s now a high-end five-star luxury resort. It’s connected to the mainland by a narrow bridge, with “stone houses packed together on top of the rocks”. Guests “stay in individual rooms or rent entire villas with private pools, terraces, and magnificent sea views”.

Orjen Mountain Range Dinaric Alps – discover-montenegro.com

Petar Petrovic Njegos Mausoleum

Petar Petrovic Njegos, Prince-Bishop of Montenegro, was a revered ruler, poet, and philosopher. His magnificent mausoleum is situated at the top of the second-highest peak on Mount Lovćen, Jezerski Vrh (1657 m). “To get there you climb 461 steps to the entrance where two granite giants guard the tomb of Montenegro’s greatest writer”.

Our Lady of the Rocks, Venetian Painter Lovro Dobričević

View from Petrovic Njegos Mausoleum

Sokol Tower

The earliest records of Sokol Tower appear in Dubrovnik archives from 1391. The isolated location “suggests that a fortress existed on this spot since the time of the Illyrians, Greeks, and Romans”. Sokol Tower was “a weapons arsenal and used for storing emergency supplies”. The tower survived the great earthquake of 1667. It’s now owned by the Association of Friends of Dubrovnik Antiquities.

Inside Kotor Cathedral


The view from Petar Petrovic Njegos Mausoleum is breathtaking – “it’s the best panoramic view of Montenegro”.


Side Street Old Town Budva Montenegro – adriaticdmc.hr

Luxury Yachts and Resorts

Montenegro and Croatia are popular summer destinations for Europe’s rich. Rapid development in Montenegro is obvious from the unseemly mix of new architecture in some areas. Wealthy Russians and Germans purchased land and built apartments and luxury resorts that are out of character with existing medieval architecture. This is especially noticeable in Budva, known for government corruption. There are no building restrictions or codes, but hopefully this will change.

Saint George Benedictine Monastery Perast Montenegro – Emerging Europe

Owners of luxury yachts often visit Montenegro and Croatia. I forget the details of a new port being built near Herceg Novi to accommodate the summer onslaught of superyachts. One superyacht, Eclipse, owned by German billionaire Roman Abramovich visits the area annually.

Budva Montenegro – adriaticdmc.hr

Back to Dubrovnik

At the end of the day we took the ferry from Lepetane to Kamenari to cross the Bay of Kotor heading back to Dubrovnik. There were few tourists on the ferry and it was fun mingling with locals. Of course each way we had border crossings which in summer can require as long as 10 hours of waiting!!! Compared to borders in Africa and South America, the border crossings were tame.


This blog post is long, but there’s so much to learn about the area, including Adriatic cultureYugoslav and Balkans Wars, and the Croatian War of Independence. Every village along the Bay of Kotor has an interesting story. Glad I have more time here!

God Hypnos on Mosaic Risan Montenegro

Church of St. Mary Kotor – Travel East